Saturday, October 8, 2011

Cantilever retaining wall

               Cantilever Retaining  Wall- is made from an internal stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete or mortared masonry (often in the shape of an inverted T).
These walls cantilever loads (like a beam) to a large, structural footing, converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall to vertical pressures on the ground below. Sometimes the cantilever retaining  wall is butressed on the front, or include a counterfort on the back, to improve the strength resisting high loads.
Buttresses are short wing walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall. These walls require rigid concrete footings below seasonal frost depth. This type of wall uses much less material than a traditional gravity wall.
These rigid concrete footings must be positioned into firm suitable foundations.The wall operates like a beam — cantilevering the load to a large, fixed structural base — converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall into vertical pressures onto the ground below.Sometimes cantilevered walls are buttressed(include short wing-like walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall) on the front, or include a counterfeit on the back, to improve their stability against heavy loads.
A free design aplication that we strongly recommend to properly design a cantilever retaining wall is:
  •  iCADonline-a free web based cantilever retaining wall analysis software that enables you to check :
  1. sliding and
  2. overturning,
  3. bearing capacity  control for: static and dynamic analysis case-that can be used by clicking here
or for more advanced design and calculation you can use the free :
  • GEO5-a free demo version of GEO5 software wich is a very complete program that includes the Cantilever aplication that is used by most professionals in geotechnical engineering and that you can be downloaded by clicking here .

Main features of GEO5:

-Verification analysis can be performed employing EN 1997-1, LRFD or classical approach (limit states, factor of safety)
-EN 1997 – option to choose partial factors based on National Annexes
-EN 1997 – option to choose all design approaches, consider design situations
-Analysis of internal stability (overturning, translation, load-bearing capacity of foundation soil)
-Verification of concrete cross-sections according to various standards (EC2, BS 8110, IS456, CSN, PN)
-Analysis according to the theory of limit states and safety factor
-Generally layered soil environment
-Built-in database of soil parameters
-Arbitrary number of surcharges applied to structures (strip, trapezoidal, concentrated load)
-Arbitrary number of inserted forces (anchors, safety fences, etc.)
-Modelling of water in front of and behind structures, modelling of artesian water
-Possibility to not consider pressure in the front
-General shape of terrain behind the structure
-Berms in front of the structure
-Various types of pressures in front of the structure (at rest, passive, reduced passive)

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